Hiperplasia nodular linfoide de colon en niños: ¿un hallazgo normal o una condición patológica subestimada?

José Francisco Cadena León, Pablo Xavier Sempértegui Cárdenas, Pablo Xavier Sempértegui Cárdenas, Karen Rubí Ignorosa Arellano, Karen Rubí Ignorosa Arellano, Erick Manuel Toro Monjaráz, Erick Manuel Toro Monjaráz, Flora Elva Zárate Mondragón, Flora Elva Zárate Mondragón, Roberto Cervantes Bustamante, Roberto Cervantes Bustamante, Jaime Alfonso Ramírez Mayans, Jaime Alfonso Ramírez Mayans

Resumen


La hiperplasia nodular linfoide es la coexistencia de más de 10 nódulos linfoides protruidos hacia la luz que se advierten durante un estudio de endoscopia, por mucho tiempo se consideró “normal” en niños; sin embargo, ahora se reporta en pacientes con dolor abdominal crónico, constipación resistente, anemia inexplicable, sangrado de tubo digestivo, diarrea crónica y retardo del crecimiento. Cada vez se dispone de más evidencia que la asocia con infecciones: giardiasis, oxiuriasis, colitis por ameba o E. coli; inmunodeficiencias: común variable, deficiencia de IgA, hipogammaglobulinemia, VIH; alergia alimentaria; enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y síndrome de intestino irritable, entre otras. La confirmación se establece con el estudio histopatológico, con hiperplasia de folículos linfoides, centros germinales con actividad mitótica y mantos de linfocitos debidamente definidos localizados en la lámina propia o submucosa superficial.

El tratamiento está dirigido a la causa de base, aunque no siempre es posible establecer se ha reportado la indicación de dietas de eliminación (alergia alimentaria) y salicilatos. El potencial de malignización no está completamente demostrado; en casos seleccionados se ha propuesto el seguimiento estrecho con estudios de endoscopia. Es importante que el profesional de la salud conozca los hallazgos endoscópicos e histológicos orientadores de hiperplasia nodular linfoide, los síntomas gastrointestinales más comúnmente asociados, las causas en las que puede manifestarse y el potencial de malignización descrito para ofrecer un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento dirigido al paciente pediátrico. El objetivo de esta revisión es aportar información actual referente a su definición, epidemiología, etiología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18233/APM41No5pp215-2211871

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